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Gilded Age Unit Resources

Posted by Mr. Earhart on October 13, 2014

cartoon-labor-vs-monopoly-graetz-puck-8-1-1883-gsu-image

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Gilded Age Quizlet flashcards located here.

Gilded Age Notes here.

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Jacob Riis Online Assignment Here.

 

The Gilded Age Exam Review

Use the packet of images to help you to answer the questions. ***  Write, write, write!  The more you write the better!

 

Identification terms.  Define AND explain the significance of FIVE of the following.  (3pts. each; 15pts. total)

  • Union – people who work together banding together to protect their own interests in the workplace.  For example union may ask for a raise, better healthcare, technology, maternity leave.  If the union is denied what they want, they may use a strike to try and get it.  The importance/significance of a union is that workers have more power collectively (as a group) than they do as individuals (on their own).  
  • Populist Party – a party (also called the people’s party) designed to help working people, founded in 1892.  People were getting overworked, too many hours each day, not enough pay, better benefits like worker’s compensation, safer conditions, etc.  Significant in that it helped people achieve better benefits, like an end to child labor.     
  • Horizontal Integration- buying out competition. Control of prices and product
  •  Vertical Integration - A business purchases other businesses that depend on that business. For example Blueberry Muffins Inc., a blueberry muffin store in ATX, would buy blueberry fields in North Dakota, and also buy the trucks that transport the blueberries. Businesses can maximize profit because they are not having to pay the producers, or the transporters.  
  • Social Darwinism – an idea/theory based on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution that businesses led by the most capable people will survive longer.  This idea/theory was a way to justify capitalism, keeping the government out of the economy so that people could fight it out economically, ensuring that the strongest, best companies survive/exist.
  • Gospel of Wealth – rich people gave to the poor as a way of charity. Trying to show they (the rich) care and feel they’re obligated to help the less fortunate. One of the first form of charity from richer people to the poor. They fed people, built public establishments like libraries and schools.
  • Monopoly – happens when a company takes over other companies.  When there are many companies there are competing prices.  For example if Gloria wants to buy a Camero and there is only one auto dealer (a monopoly) the car will be very expensive.  But if there are 15 auto dealers in Austin that have Cameros will have to compete/fight for Gloria’s business.  
  • Sherman Antitrust Act – split apart big, big, big companies into smaller companies so that companies wouldn’t get too big and control everything.  Significant in that this act split up bug companies like Rockefeller’s Standard Oil.  It was one of the first attempts by the government to regulate big business, protecting smaller companies.    

Jacob Riis

  • Pullman Strike – workers at the Pullman factory banned together and went on strike, which means they refused to work until their working conditions improved, because Pullman cut their salaries but did not lower their rents (he owned their living quarters).  Significant because it was one of the first major strikes in US History, also significant in that the government helped Pullman and most of workers got fired and were prevented from joining unions.     

Political Machine

Eugene Debs

  • Explain the Chinese Exclusion Act and why many Americans supported it.  (9 pts.)

The Chinese Exclusion Act was a law in which Americans forbade/prevented the Chinese from coming to the US.  Many Americans felt that the Chinese were taking American’s jobs and that the Chinese would work for less money, so they were undercutting salaries.  Many also thought that the Chinese were responsible for drug abuse, like opium.  Most significant was that many American’s had a dislike for Chinese culture, they were racist.  This attitude toward the Chinese was the same way “Americans” tried to change the Native Americans to be more white.  

  • Explain the proper role for government in the economy.  Discuss the differences between capitalism and socialism as economic systems.  (12 pts.)

 Capitalism is caring more about the economy and socialism is caring more about the people within the economy.  Capitalism cares more about profit and maximizing products and businesses in the economy, whereas socialism cares more about caring for the people that contribute to the economy, so that when one contributes into the economy, one then gets a return from the economy, and the process then continues.  For example a more capitalist economy would not regulate how much an employer would have to pay workers, whereas a socialist economy would require a minimum wage or require employers to provide service to their employees, such as healthcare and retirement.  Another example of socialism would be providing social security (money for old people’s retirement) by taxing citizens.  Pure capitalism would encourage private citizens to save for their own retirement, rather than taking their money to do it for them.  An example of socialism would be using tax dollars to fund shelters and food banks for the those that are homeless.  Pure, laissez-faire capitalism, would not use any tax dollars for this.      

 

  • Define the Gilded Age, and, with examples, explain and analyze this period of time in US History.  (15pts.)

 

Time of American prosperity, but at the same time it was a period of long-hardships.  To gild means to coat/cover in gold, so on the surface the Gilded Age looked great, because of the industrial boom, such as the creation of the assembly line, the transcontinental railroad, “new” land in the West for settlers, the telephone, electricity, the skyscraper, etc.  These inventions helped grow the US economy.  

But underneath the surface were many issues, such as the removal of Indians from their Native lands, lack of a balance in working conditions, no middle class (just very rich and very poor), drug abuse in opium dens, homeless and hungry children (and adults) in the city.  There was crime in the cities and no real system of justice because criminals (ward bosses) were very corrupt.       

Posted in History | Leave a Comment »

“Westward Expansion” Exam Review

Posted by Mr. Earhart on September 18, 2014

ManifestDestinyPainting

 

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Notes:  Native Americans Notes!  And Quizlet here!

Sample Exam IDs and Essays:

Westward Expansion and Native Americans

IDs

Define AND explain the significance of the following.  There are 10; YOU PICK 5!

Homestead Act      Manifest Destiny      reservation

Transcontinental Railroad      Nativism      Bureau of Indian Affairs

Great Plains      Alice Fletcher      “Kill The Indian; Save the Man”

assimilation      Chief Joseph

“Kill the Indian; Save the Man” – a phrase and act/program, that made Native Americans get rid of their culture.  Like all those NA kids that went to school and had to learn English, dress like “Americans” (whitey).  This was significant because it broke the culture of Native American tribes.  This slowly corrupted NA tribes, and today they live very poorly, and have little remaining of their culture.    

Reservation – when Americans “gave” Indians different land because the Americans needed the land the Indians were originally on.  (They were forced to move locations that the US government already reserved for them. The Americans took land that wasn’t theirs to begin with.)  The reservation allowed NAs to stay as a family and keep their traditions.  Eventually these reservations are taken away with “Kill the Indian; Save the Man” and the Dawes Act.

Assimilation – a policy which forces immigrants to adopt native customs.  Significant because NA were forced to adopt English/white people customs instead of keeping their own.  An example of assimilation was forced reservations, the Dawes Act, Indian Schools and the English language.  

Nativism – a policy of favoring/preferring “native born” peoples over foreign born, during the late 19th Century.  Significant in that it was ironic because few prferred actual native born people (Native Americans) and it showed that Americans were not inclusive of all immigrants.  Example: The Chinese Exclusion Act.  

 

Essay

 

  • Explain the Dawes Act and Indian Schools.
  • What effects did these actions have on Native Americans.
  • Why did many Americans support these actions as a solution to the “Indian Problem?”
  • Consider discussing geographic, economic, political, and social influences to adopting these actions)
  • Write.  Write.  Write.  The more you write the better!

The Dawes Act gave 160 acres of land to each individual Native American.  The US government used the policy to acquire more land, because the US wanted to settle more European immigrants out West.  To get this land the government forced Native American reservations to be split up.  To further destroy NA tribes, the government established Indian Schools, which destroyed culture by trying to “civilize” the NAs by forcing NA to be more European and to abandon tribal customs like traditional dress, marriage ceremonies, haircuts, LANGUAGE, etc.  

The Great Plains were great for farming and it motivated white settlers to expand and take Native American land for economic gain.  The transcontinental railroad was complete and it helped “Americans” get out west to more quickly settle.  Businesses were getting bigger and more global and made more money for Europeans – who needed more land – and it made racist Europeans force Indians to be more like them “capitalist entrepreneurs”.        

 

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First Week Assignments for SATs:

Posted by Mr. Earhart on September 5, 2014

First Week Assignments for SATs:

  1. Make sure you are set-up to receive alerts, notes, and direct messages in Edmodo.
    1. See the previous “Note” in Edmodo for instructions.
  2. Schedule a time to have a conversation with your cooperating teacher outside of class time.  This conversation…
    1. only needs to be about 15 minutes.  
    2. will help set expectations and create a clear line of communication between the SAT and the cooperating teacher.
  3. Learn student names:
    1. Get your hands on a seating chart and/or roster for the course.  
    2. Hand back assignments
  4. Pick one or two strategies to focus on during the first week:
    1. “What are we working on?”  “Would you like any help?”
    2. Get at eye level and on the side of (not across from) when approaching and working with students.  
    3. Start from what the student knows and then work from there.
      1. “What do we know about the this problem/question?”
      2. “What’s the first step we should try?”
    4. Give a proper amount of “wait time” for students to think after asking a question.
      1. research says 8 seconds
    5. Use teaming pronouns. 
      1. we, let’s, etc.  (you & I)

Posted in Students as Teachers | 2 Comments »

US History Review

Posted by Mr. Earhart on April 21, 2014

While the US History EOC is a poor measure of our knowledge of history, it’s the reality we face. We have to pass this exam to graduate.  Here are some resources to help you study for it.

***All Quizlet sets can be found here.***

Daily Review Session Quizlets:

Monday 4/21 and Tuesday 4/22: Studying History General Terms and 1980 to Present

Wednesday 4/23 and Thursday 4/24: People – 1920s Progressives and Post-War America and the New Era

Friday 4/25 and Monday 4/28: Causes of the Great Depression/ and Effects of the Great Depression

Tuesday 4/29 and Wednesday 4/30: WWII and People – Civil Rights

Thursday 4/30 and Friday 5/1: Vietnam and 1980 to Present

 

Posted in History | 1 Comment »

Appeasement and the Road to WWII

Posted by Mr. Earhart on February 3, 2014

appeaserWe spent our last class period investigating to conditions of Germany, Italy, and Japan that led to the rise of fascism in these countries.  Today we’ll examine the steps these countries took toward expansion, and how the powerful countries of the world (non)responded to this expansion.

  1. Visit this website to learn about appeasement and Nazi Germany’s plans for expansion.  There are 2 pages to read.  Read them both and answer the accompanying questions on your handout.
  2. Visit this website and play the role of the United States in responding to the actions of European leaders.  Click on Europe.  Read the prompt and then “Select a Course of Action”.  Read what happened, and then “Advance to Next Event” until you’ve completed Europe.
  3. Continue using this website to learn about Asia.
  4. Now visit this website to conduct similar research.  Start with Europe and North Africa.  Then Highlight the picture of “Nazi Expansion” and read about both of “Nazi Invasion” and the “Nazi Occupation of Europe”.  There are some quality visuals on this website.  ***Use the arrows to read more***
  5. Using the same website, explore Asia.  Be sure to complete the sections on “Japan’s Expansion” and “The Nanking Massacre”.  This photo essay communicates what happened at Nanjing much more strongly than text.
  6. Continuing to use this website take a look at North America and read about “Lend-Lease”.

Posted in History | 7 Comments »

World War II

Posted by Mr. Earhart on January 27, 2014

WWII Vocab Quizlet Here!

And

Sample Student Responses to WWII Prompts and IDs

Go to http://andersonIssues.com and practice your vocabulary via Quizlet.

These 3 prompts will appear on the exam.

(You pick 2 to answer.  15 pts each: total of 30 points)

  1. Define fascism.  How is fascism related to nationalism?  What conditions existed during the 1930s that led many countries (like Germany, Italy, and Japan) to embrace fascist leaders?  Give examples.  

    Fascism is an an extreme form of nationalism, having pride for your nation (in this case your German, Italian, Japanese, etc.), in which a dictator controls nearly all aspects of people’s lives.   

    After the First World War countries were fairly poor, and when the Great Depression happened countries became even poorer – their economies are destroyed, and many people started to look for someone to blame.  The Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for WWI and forced Germany to pay Great Britain and France large sums of money.  Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party, starts to use these arguments and situations to gain support.  Because there was political unrest, a fear of communism and lost pride, Hitler is able to become Chancellor.  Mussolini and Hdeki Tojo also take advantage of the economic situations and political unrest in their own countries to take power.  These leaders used large amounts of propaganda to develop “Cult(s) of Personality” and turned to militarism, the glorification of the military, to restore a sense of pride in their nation’s identity.   

  1. Define appeasement.  Why did the United States support a policy of appeasement toward Germany, Italy and Japan?  Give examples.      

Appeasement is giving into demands in order to avoid conflict.  The United States (and countries like great Britain and France) let Germany, Italy, and Japan, basically do whatever they wanted to do, because they did not want a war.  The world had just come out of WWI and countries did not want another war.  WWI was, in part, caused by the Alliance System in which countries came to each others’ defense – many countries thought that isolationism (staying out of others people’s bizness) was a better policy.  The United States even passed something called the Neutrality Acts in 1939 to stay out of the war.  The Great Depression caused world wide poverty, forcing many countries to focus on internal struggles rather than the actions of countries like Italy, Germany, and Japan.  For example, Germany violated multiple provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, the peace treaty that ended WWI, and the allies did nothing to stop Germany, such as conducting an Anschluss (union) with Austria and rebuilding their military.  At the Munich Conference, the Allies give Germany the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia that contained ethnic Germans, and thought that Hitler was satisfied.  Obviously he was not, and the US should have intervened earlier so that there could have been a smaller conflict.        

  1. Why did President Truman decide to use the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki?  Do you agree or disagree with his decision to do such?  Explain your position.  

President Truman used the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki to prevent/minimize American casualties.  Truman thought the Japanese would fight to the death to defend mainland Japan.  The Japanese had increased their use of kamikaze pilots (suicide bombers) as the war continued.  The battles at Iwo Jima and Okinawa were evidence of the amount of American forces it would take to win in Japan.  The Japanese often refused to surrender, and even faked surrender to draw US soldiers close for a final and fatal attack by drawing the pin on a grenade.  

    Truman used the atomic bomb to scare the Japanese into surrender, rather than to invade Japan and suffer 500,000 casualties.  Some historians believe that Pres. Truman was also trying to send a message to Russia (USSR/Soviet Union), as Stalin and the Soviets were “liberating” Europe from German rule, but the Allies were worried the Soviets would not leave these newly liberated territories.  

I would not have dropped the atomic bomb because it killed innocent civilians and ushered in a new era of warfare.  The radiation that lingers from a nuclear attack, causes death for many years after, including birth defects and cancer for those in the area.  Some US Generals thought the Japanese were ready to surrender, that they were looking to do such, and that the Soviets were progressing through China and would help the US defeat Japan quickly.      

IDs: Define and explain the significance of the following terms in relation to WWII.  These 10 will be on the exam.  You pick 5.  (3 pts each: total of 15 pts.)

Okinawa        Leapfrogging            Lebensraum        Militarism

Great Depression        Treaty of Versailles        Operation Barbarossa

Manhattan Project        Rape of Nanjing        Dresden

Lebensraum – literally translated as “living space,” served as a major reason for Nazi Germany’s territorial expansion and aggression.  Adolf Hitler wrote of the German people’s right to lebensraum in his book, Mein Kampf, and used this concept to justify occupying the Slavic lands to the East.       

Dresden – a city in East Germany where the US and British dropped Napalm and bombs, killing thousands of civilians.  Significant in that many consider this type of bombing to be a war crime, that killing civilians to achieve a military victory is wrong.

Operation Barbarossa – was Hitler’s plan to invade the Soviet union (Russia).  Significant in that this military action was probably the reason that Germany lost the war. The Soviet Union was too strong of a military force and Germany was expanding too far in territory.

Posted in History | 1 Comment »

Roaring 20s

Posted by Mr. Earhart on January 17, 2014

For Vocabulary Games via Quizlet click here.

Posted in Uncategorized | 2 Comments »

Great Depression Resources

Posted by Mr. Earhart on December 10, 2013

Great Depression Notes

Vocab Quizlet

Posted in History | 1 Comment »

Mother Ginger

Posted by Mr. Earhart on November 15, 2013

For those unaware, I’ve the honor of being Mother Ginger in this year’s rendition of The Nutcracker.  My performance is on Friday, December 13th, and discounted ticket info appears below.  It should be quite entertaining.

mg-earhart

Posted in Cultural Events, History | 12 Comments »

American Expansion, Imperialism, and WWI

Posted by Mr. Earhart on November 7, 2013

School_Begins_(Puck_Magazine_1-25-1899,_cropped)

The PowerPoint for our unit on Imperialism and American Expansion can be found here: Imperialism Notes.

You can also watch this Crash Course video clip about the time period:

Notes over the First World War can be found here: WWI Notes.

And a Crash Course video may be found here:

American Expansion and World War I Exam

(Written Portion)

*Use a separate sheet of paper*

***Hint: when appropriate, steal from other parts of this exam (matching and multiple choice questions) to help create your answers.***  Write, write, write!  The more you write the better! 

Part One: Identification terms (3 points each, 15 points total)

Define AND explain the significance of FIVE terms:

Zimmermann Note  – Germany wanted Mexico to attack the United States if the US entered the war.  But the British intercepted (and decoded) this message and gave it to US.  The US then decided to join the war.

Spanish-American War                       Self-Determination

The Philippines          Alliance System

Alfred T. Mahan

Lusitania

Panama Canal              Yellow Journalism                  Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

Part Two: Essay (15 points total – 3 points will be awarded for each quality thought – including the opportunity for bonus points for each thought beyond 5)

Select one of the following prompts for your essay:

- What were the significant factors causing the outbreak of the First World War (we discussed 4) and why did the United States enter the conflict?   Example essay from 1st Period:

           Some significant factors causing the outbreak of the First World War are nationalism, imperialism, militarism (the arm’s race), and the Alliance System. 

            Imperialism, also known as empire building, created conflicts between European nations, as the powerful countries competed for economic markets around the world.  This economic competition led to the desire for many countries to build up their militaries so they could control other parts of the world and make money from trading (and acquiring) resources from other countries. 

            There was an arm’s race between Great Britain and Germany, as Germany began to build submarines; the British felt threatened by this military build-up so GB began to expand it’s already strong Navy.  The countries became suspicious and fearful of each other.

            Many countries began to form alliances with other countries, pledging to come to the defense of a country if they were attacked.  This led to WWI, as a conflict between two countries, such as Serbia and Austria-Hungary, became a problem for many countries that had pledged to defend them if they were attacked. 

            And that’s exactly what happened.  A group of Serbians called The Black Hand, assassinated the prince of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand.  These Serbians wanted to be controlled by Serbians and not the Austro-Hungarian Empire.  Their pride in their cultural identity (Serbian), known as nationalism, led them to fight for their independence.  Many European countries had also developed strong forms of nationalism within their countries (Germany, France, Great Britain, and even the United States) and that led to a feeling that they were superior to other countries and that they had a right to control other groups of people.    

            The United States became involved in the war in 1917 because of Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare in which they sank ships carrying US civilians, such as the Lusitania.  When the Zimmermann Note, a proposed military alliance between Mexico and Germany, became public knowledge, the United States agreed to enter the war on the side of the Allied Powers.  The Zimmermann Note was used to convince the American public to support the Allied Powers, as the United States had for years been making money by selling weapons and loaning money to the Allied Powers.   It was probably only a matter of time before the US tried to make sure that the Allies won the war.

And 2nd Period:

            The alliance system involved a lot of the countries into the First World War, because of the treaties between them and how if one of the countries was attacked another country would come to its defense.  A fight set off a chain reaction in which nearly all countries joined the war. 

            Nationalism is pride in one’s nation, and a nation is a similar group of people.  It led to the Serbian execution of Austrian prince Franz Ferdinand, because they wanted the Austrians out o’ their land – the Serbs wanted their own nation-state.  Nationalism can be dangerous in excess, making some countries feel superior to others. 

            The arm’s race, by building up their armies, countries were not going to just let those armies sit there and be purty, they were going to use them. 

            Imperialism, when strong countries take control of weaker countries, led to conflict because European countries were in competition for land and resources.  

            The Germans really started using unrestricted submarine warfare which made it dangerous for civilians to be on the ocean, and when these civilians were killed the US got mad.  When the Zimmerman Note revealed that Germany wanted Mexico to attack the US, folks got aaaaaalll wound up, and were ready to go to war with the Germans.    But the real reason the US went to war was that they had been loaning tons of money and selling tons of weapons to the Allied Powers.

8th Period:

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare takes down (causes the sinking of) the Lusitania, killing American citizens which caused tension between the US and Germany.  The Lusitania didn’t just have citizens aboard, it also had several (5000) crates of weapons headed to Great Britain.  The Zimmermann Note happened in which Germany wanted Mexico to attack the US.  That made Uncle Sam angry. 

            Imperialism, when other countries take control of other countries, and want to be the most powerful country, it leads to conflict.  It’s competition for overseas trade, resources, and markets.  In order to do that, Europe began to militarize and engage in an arm’s race.  Germany and Great Britain expanded their Navies, and they made each other nervous by doing that. 

            Nationalism, pride in one’s nation (which is common group of people), like the Serbs wanted to control their own land (self-determination), but Austria-Hungary controlled their (the Serbs’ land).  So… one group of Serbs (The Black Hand) decided to kill the Austrian prince Franz Ferdinand. 

            But because European countries had alliances, nearly all of Europe ends up in the fight.     

            There were 4 significant factors causing the outbreak of the First World War.  Franz Ferdinand, the Austrian Prince was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serbian rebel, because Serbia didn’t like being controlled by Austria, they wanted to have self-determination – they wanted to control their own nation. 

            It should have been a fight between Serbia and Austria, but there were many alliances between European countries, so everyone went to war.

            European countries were engaged in imperialism, which is when a country takes over a weaker nation – because countries wanted resources and new markets for trade.  In order to be economic powers, countries started to build-up their militaries. 

            We ran out of time so read the next classes’ answer J

- What were the arguments for and against American Expansion (Imperialism)?  Explain how America became recognized as a world power during this time period?  Example essay from 7th Period:

            There are many reasons for and against American Expansion.  Arguments for expansion include the gain of military and economic power.  The United States wanted to be safe from harm, and building a strong Navy and military would help them do this.  Alfred Mahan argued that a strong navy was important, and could be achieved by establishing military bases throughout the world.  Mahan thought these bases could be used as fueling stations for our naval fleet throughout the world.  Henry Cabot Lodge argued that the United States needed to evolve as a country.  He believed in Social Darwinism, and that the US must become an economic power so that it could compete with and control other parts of the world.

            And also there were some “American” idiots like Josiah Strong, who believed the US needed to Christianize and White-Up the rest o’ the world. 

            However there were some people who thought expansion was un-American and ran counter to the ideal of democracy  – that it was wrong to tell other countries how to “behave”.    

            The Spanish American War made the US a world player, by defeating Spain the US gained the territories of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam – and Guantanamo Bay as a military base – which allowed the second Harold and Kumar film to be produced.  The US overthrew the Queen (Liliuokalani) of Hawaii  in order to remain in control of sugar plantations.  The US also helped overthrow the Columbians and established Panama so they could build the Panama Canal.  Teddy Roosevelt sent the Great White Fleet around the world, to say, “Hey e’erbody, don’t mess with us.  We have guns.”  This was Roosevelt’s idea of “Speaking softly, but carrying a big stick.”

Bonus: Explain the difference between a nation and a state. Using examples, describe how this difference has created conflict throughout history

(2 bonus point awarded for each quality thought)

Posted in History | 2 Comments »

 
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