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US History Review

Posted by Mr. Earhart on April 21, 2014

While the US History EOC is a poor measure of our knowledge of history, it’s the reality we face. We have to pass this exam to graduate.  Here are some resources to help you study for it.

***All Quizlet sets can be found here.***

Daily Review Session Quizlets:

Monday 4/21 and Tuesday 4/22: Studying History General Terms and 1980 to Present

Wednesday 4/23 and Thursday 4/24: People – 1920s Progressives and Post-War America and the New Era

Friday 4/25 and Monday 4/28: Causes of the Great Depression/ and Effects of the Great Depression

Tuesday 4/29 and Wednesday 4/30: WWII and People – Civil Rights

Thursday 4/30 and Friday 5/1: Vietnam and 1980 to Present

 

Posted in History | 1 Comment »

Appeasement and the Road to WWII

Posted by Mr. Earhart on February 3, 2014

appeaserWe spent our last class period investigating to conditions of Germany, Italy, and Japan that led to the rise of fascism in these countries.  Today we’ll examine the steps these countries took toward expansion, and how the powerful countries of the world (non)responded to this expansion.

  1. Visit this website to learn about appeasement and Nazi Germany’s plans for expansion.  There are 2 pages to read.  Read them both and answer the accompanying questions on your handout.
  2. Visit this website and play the role of the United States in responding to the actions of European leaders.  Click on Europe.  Read the prompt and then “Select a Course of Action”.  Read what happened, and then “Advance to Next Event” until you’ve completed Europe.
  3. Continue using this website to learn about Asia.
  4. Now visit this website to conduct similar research.  Start with Europe and North Africa.  Then Highlight the picture of “Nazi Expansion” and read about both of “Nazi Invasion” and the “Nazi Occupation of Europe”.  There are some quality visuals on this website.  ***Use the arrows to read more***
  5. Using the same website, explore Asia.  Be sure to complete the sections on “Japan’s Expansion” and “The Nanking Massacre”.  This photo essay communicates what happened at Nanjing much more strongly than text.
  6. Continuing to use this website take a look at North America and read about “Lend-Lease”.

Posted in History | 6 Comments »

World War II

Posted by Mr. Earhart on January 27, 2014

WWII Vocab Quizlet Here!

And

Sample Student Responses to WWII Prompts and IDs

Go to http://andersonIssues.com and practice your vocabulary via Quizlet.

These 3 prompts will appear on the exam.

(You pick 2 to answer.  15 pts each: total of 30 points)

  1. Define fascism.  How is fascism related to nationalism?  What conditions existed during the 1930s that led many countries (like Germany, Italy, and Japan) to embrace fascist leaders?  Give examples.  

    Fascism is an an extreme form of nationalism, having pride for your nation (in this case your German, Italian, Japanese, etc.), in which a dictator controls nearly all aspects of people’s lives.   

    After the First World War countries were fairly poor, and when the Great Depression happened countries became even poorer – their economies are destroyed, and many people started to look for someone to blame.  The Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for WWI and forced Germany to pay Great Britain and France large sums of money.  Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party, starts to use these arguments and situations to gain support.  Because there was political unrest, a fear of communism and lost pride, Hitler is able to become Chancellor.  Mussolini and Hdeki Tojo also take advantage of the economic situations and political unrest in their own countries to take power.  These leaders used large amounts of propaganda to develop “Cult(s) of Personality” and turned to militarism, the glorification of the military, to restore a sense of pride in their nation’s identity.   

  1. Define appeasement.  Why did the United States support a policy of appeasement toward Germany, Italy and Japan?  Give examples.      

Appeasement is giving into demands in order to avoid conflict.  The United States (and countries like great Britain and France) let Germany, Italy, and Japan, basically do whatever they wanted to do, because they did not want a war.  The world had just come out of WWI and countries did not want another war.  WWI was, in part, caused by the Alliance System in which countries came to each others’ defense – many countries thought that isolationism (staying out of others people’s bizness) was a better policy.  The United States even passed something called the Neutrality Acts in 1939 to stay out of the war.  The Great Depression caused world wide poverty, forcing many countries to focus on internal struggles rather than the actions of countries like Italy, Germany, and Japan.  For example, Germany violated multiple provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, the peace treaty that ended WWI, and the allies did nothing to stop Germany, such as conducting an Anschluss (union) with Austria and rebuilding their military.  At the Munich Conference, the Allies give Germany the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia that contained ethnic Germans, and thought that Hitler was satisfied.  Obviously he was not, and the US should have intervened earlier so that there could have been a smaller conflict.        

  1. Why did President Truman decide to use the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki?  Do you agree or disagree with his decision to do such?  Explain your position.  

President Truman used the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki to prevent/minimize American casualties.  Truman thought the Japanese would fight to the death to defend mainland Japan.  The Japanese had increased their use of kamikaze pilots (suicide bombers) as the war continued.  The battles at Iwo Jima and Okinawa were evidence of the amount of American forces it would take to win in Japan.  The Japanese often refused to surrender, and even faked surrender to draw US soldiers close for a final and fatal attack by drawing the pin on a grenade.  

    Truman used the atomic bomb to scare the Japanese into surrender, rather than to invade Japan and suffer 500,000 casualties.  Some historians believe that Pres. Truman was also trying to send a message to Russia (USSR/Soviet Union), as Stalin and the Soviets were “liberating” Europe from German rule, but the Allies were worried the Soviets would not leave these newly liberated territories.  

I would not have dropped the atomic bomb because it killed innocent civilians and ushered in a new era of warfare.  The radiation that lingers from a nuclear attack, causes death for many years after, including birth defects and cancer for those in the area.  Some US Generals thought the Japanese were ready to surrender, that they were looking to do such, and that the Soviets were progressing through China and would help the US defeat Japan quickly.      

IDs: Define and explain the significance of the following terms in relation to WWII.  These 10 will be on the exam.  You pick 5.  (3 pts each: total of 15 pts.)

Okinawa        Leapfrogging            Lebensraum        Militarism

Great Depression        Treaty of Versailles        Operation Barbarossa

Manhattan Project        Rape of Nanjing        Dresden

Lebensraum – literally translated as “living space,” served as a major reason for Nazi Germany’s territorial expansion and aggression.  Adolf Hitler wrote of the German people’s right to lebensraum in his book, Mein Kampf, and used this concept to justify occupying the Slavic lands to the East.       

Dresden – a city in East Germany where the US and British dropped Napalm and bombs, killing thousands of civilians.  Significant in that many consider this type of bombing to be a war crime, that killing civilians to achieve a military victory is wrong.

Operation Barbarossa – was Hitler’s plan to invade the Soviet union (Russia).  Significant in that this military action was probably the reason that Germany lost the war. The Soviet Union was too strong of a military force and Germany was expanding too far in territory.

Posted in History | Leave a Comment »

Roaring 20s

Posted by Mr. Earhart on January 17, 2014

For Vocabulary Games via Quizlet click here.

Posted in Uncategorized | 2 Comments »

Great Depression Resources

Posted by Mr. Earhart on December 10, 2013

Great Depression Notes

Vocab Quizlet

Posted in History | 1 Comment »

Mother Ginger

Posted by Mr. Earhart on November 15, 2013

For those unaware, I’ve the honor of being Mother Ginger in this year’s rendition of The Nutcracker.  My performance is on Friday, December 13th, and discounted ticket info appears below.  It should be quite entertaining.

mg-earhart

Posted in Cultural Events, History | 5 Comments »

American Expansion, Imperialism, and WWI

Posted by Mr. Earhart on November 7, 2013

School_Begins_(Puck_Magazine_1-25-1899,_cropped)

The PowerPoint for our unit on Imperialism and American Expansion can be found here: Imperialism Notes.

You can also watch this Crash Course video clip about the time period:

Notes over the First World War can be found here: WWI Notes.

And a Crash Course video may be found here:

American Expansion and World War I Exam

(Written Portion)

*Use a separate sheet of paper*

***Hint: when appropriate, steal from other parts of this exam (matching and multiple choice questions) to help create your answers.***  Write, write, write!  The more you write the better! 

Part One: Identification terms (3 points each, 15 points total)

Define AND explain the significance of FIVE terms:

Zimmermann Note  – Germany wanted Mexico to attack the United States if the US entered the war.  But the British intercepted (and decoded) this message and gave it to US.  The US then decided to join the war.

Spanish-American War                       Self-Determination

The Philippines          Alliance System

Alfred T. Mahan

Lusitania

Panama Canal              Yellow Journalism                  Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

Part Two: Essay (15 points total – 3 points will be awarded for each quality thought – including the opportunity for bonus points for each thought beyond 5)

Select one of the following prompts for your essay:

- What were the significant factors causing the outbreak of the First World War (we discussed 4) and why did the United States enter the conflict?   Example essay from 1st Period:

           Some significant factors causing the outbreak of the First World War are nationalism, imperialism, militarism (the arm’s race), and the Alliance System. 

            Imperialism, also known as empire building, created conflicts between European nations, as the powerful countries competed for economic markets around the world.  This economic competition led to the desire for many countries to build up their militaries so they could control other parts of the world and make money from trading (and acquiring) resources from other countries. 

            There was an arm’s race between Great Britain and Germany, as Germany began to build submarines; the British felt threatened by this military build-up so GB began to expand it’s already strong Navy.  The countries became suspicious and fearful of each other.

            Many countries began to form alliances with other countries, pledging to come to the defense of a country if they were attacked.  This led to WWI, as a conflict between two countries, such as Serbia and Austria-Hungary, became a problem for many countries that had pledged to defend them if they were attacked. 

            And that’s exactly what happened.  A group of Serbians called The Black Hand, assassinated the prince of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand.  These Serbians wanted to be controlled by Serbians and not the Austro-Hungarian Empire.  Their pride in their cultural identity (Serbian), known as nationalism, led them to fight for their independence.  Many European countries had also developed strong forms of nationalism within their countries (Germany, France, Great Britain, and even the United States) and that led to a feeling that they were superior to other countries and that they had a right to control other groups of people.    

            The United States became involved in the war in 1917 because of Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare in which they sank ships carrying US civilians, such as the Lusitania.  When the Zimmermann Note, a proposed military alliance between Mexico and Germany, became public knowledge, the United States agreed to enter the war on the side of the Allied Powers.  The Zimmermann Note was used to convince the American public to support the Allied Powers, as the United States had for years been making money by selling weapons and loaning money to the Allied Powers.   It was probably only a matter of time before the US tried to make sure that the Allies won the war.

And 2nd Period:

            The alliance system involved a lot of the countries into the First World War, because of the treaties between them and how if one of the countries was attacked another country would come to its defense.  A fight set off a chain reaction in which nearly all countries joined the war. 

            Nationalism is pride in one’s nation, and a nation is a similar group of people.  It led to the Serbian execution of Austrian prince Franz Ferdinand, because they wanted the Austrians out o’ their land – the Serbs wanted their own nation-state.  Nationalism can be dangerous in excess, making some countries feel superior to others. 

            The arm’s race, by building up their armies, countries were not going to just let those armies sit there and be purty, they were going to use them. 

            Imperialism, when strong countries take control of weaker countries, led to conflict because European countries were in competition for land and resources.  

            The Germans really started using unrestricted submarine warfare which made it dangerous for civilians to be on the ocean, and when these civilians were killed the US got mad.  When the Zimmerman Note revealed that Germany wanted Mexico to attack the US, folks got aaaaaalll wound up, and were ready to go to war with the Germans.    But the real reason the US went to war was that they had been loaning tons of money and selling tons of weapons to the Allied Powers.

8th Period:

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare takes down (causes the sinking of) the Lusitania, killing American citizens which caused tension between the US and Germany.  The Lusitania didn’t just have citizens aboard, it also had several (5000) crates of weapons headed to Great Britain.  The Zimmermann Note happened in which Germany wanted Mexico to attack the US.  That made Uncle Sam angry. 

            Imperialism, when other countries take control of other countries, and want to be the most powerful country, it leads to conflict.  It’s competition for overseas trade, resources, and markets.  In order to do that, Europe began to militarize and engage in an arm’s race.  Germany and Great Britain expanded their Navies, and they made each other nervous by doing that. 

            Nationalism, pride in one’s nation (which is common group of people), like the Serbs wanted to control their own land (self-determination), but Austria-Hungary controlled their (the Serbs’ land).  So… one group of Serbs (The Black Hand) decided to kill the Austrian prince Franz Ferdinand. 

            But because European countries had alliances, nearly all of Europe ends up in the fight.     

            There were 4 significant factors causing the outbreak of the First World War.  Franz Ferdinand, the Austrian Prince was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serbian rebel, because Serbia didn’t like being controlled by Austria, they wanted to have self-determination – they wanted to control their own nation. 

            It should have been a fight between Serbia and Austria, but there were many alliances between European countries, so everyone went to war.

            European countries were engaged in imperialism, which is when a country takes over a weaker nation – because countries wanted resources and new markets for trade.  In order to be economic powers, countries started to build-up their militaries. 

            We ran out of time so read the next classes’ answer J

- What were the arguments for and against American Expansion (Imperialism)?  Explain how America became recognized as a world power during this time period?  Example essay from 7th Period:

            There are many reasons for and against American Expansion.  Arguments for expansion include the gain of military and economic power.  The United States wanted to be safe from harm, and building a strong Navy and military would help them do this.  Alfred Mahan argued that a strong navy was important, and could be achieved by establishing military bases throughout the world.  Mahan thought these bases could be used as fueling stations for our naval fleet throughout the world.  Henry Cabot Lodge argued that the United States needed to evolve as a country.  He believed in Social Darwinism, and that the US must become an economic power so that it could compete with and control other parts of the world.

            And also there were some “American” idiots like Josiah Strong, who believed the US needed to Christianize and White-Up the rest o’ the world. 

            However there were some people who thought expansion was un-American and ran counter to the ideal of democracy  – that it was wrong to tell other countries how to “behave”.    

            The Spanish American War made the US a world player, by defeating Spain the US gained the territories of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam – and Guantanamo Bay as a military base – which allowed the second Harold and Kumar film to be produced.  The US overthrew the Queen (Liliuokalani) of Hawaii  in order to remain in control of sugar plantations.  The US also helped overthrow the Columbians and established Panama so they could build the Panama Canal.  Teddy Roosevelt sent the Great White Fleet around the world, to say, “Hey e’erbody, don’t mess with us.  We have guns.”  This was Roosevelt’s idea of “Speaking softly, but carrying a big stick.”

Bonus: Explain the difference between a nation and a state. Using examples, describe how this difference has created conflict throughout history

(2 bonus point awarded for each quality thought)

Posted in History | 1 Comment »

Conscientious Consumerism

Posted by Mr. Earhart on October 30, 2013

Your assignment is…

Punk-Rock List Generator (In the time it takes Bad Brains to crank out a song, make a list of all of the things that you purchase and the businesses that you visit on a consistent basis.

Now.  Pick 3 of the above items that you want to research.

Step One: Who owns it?  Most businesses are actually owned by larger corporations known as parent companies.  Your first task is to find out who owns what’s on your list; after all, that’s where your money is goin.’

A great website to use for finding parent companies is http://hoovers.com.  If Hoover’s fails you, try the Google using “(Taco Cabana) Parent Company,” as that will eventually lead you to Fiesta Restaurant Company, the owners of Taco Cabana.

Item/Product                               Business                                 Parent Company              Revenue

Beefy-5 Layer!                             Taco Bell                       Yum! Brands Inc.                         13.6 Billion

1.

2.

3.

Step Two: Research.  There are a few options for researching your companies.  You may want to research based on your own interests.  GoodGuide.com has a few technical glitches from time to time, but when working you can create a profile of what qualities you want to know about a particular company – and they have a more diversified list than most websites, including three major qualities: health, environmental practices, and labor practices.  GreenAmerica.org  (click on “Our Work” then “Responsible Shopper” Then “Learn”) looks solely at environmental practices, but their information is much more comprehensive than GoodGuide.com (and their URL ends .org – so that’s better.)  And the Human Rights Campaign (hrc.org – Click On “Resources” and then “Buyer’s Guide”) evaluates companies on their policies related to LGBT (Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgendered) rights.

After these options are explored you can just Google your company with combinations like “(Coca-Cola) Human Rights Violations,” “(Nike) Labor Dispute,” “(Chik-Fil-A) LGBT Issues,” etc. to see if there are any news stories related to these companies.

***As you conduct your research, complete the graphic organizer ***

Company

The Good

The Bad

Alternatives

Grade

Product, Business, and Company Name

List Evidence of What The Company Does Well Here

List Evidence of What the Company Does Bad Here

What are the alternatives to purchasing this product (or conserving)

Give the product a grade

Step Three: Reflection

How reliable were your sources as you conducted research?

What was difficult about this assignment?

What can you do to be a more responsible consumer?

I went ahead and did this assignment; my results appear…

Having finished The Harvest, we can acknowledge that the United States still has a need for progressives.  The conditions faced by these children (and the adults) are unacceptable.  There are certainly many parties that bear responsibility: business owners, governmental policy and enforcement, parental guidance, and consumers.

I’ll steal words from a more elegant writer, as Amy Hall writes for The Daily Beast

When tragedies like this happen, we are tempted to point fingers at those we think are responsible parties. To the government that should enforce its own laws. To the brands who should invest more deeply in their supplier factories. To the consumers who buy their wares. We are all guilty on some level. We are all connected. We are all reminded that we must deepen our commitment to ending such inequities going forward.

Hall is referring to this horrendous incident at a garment factory in Bangladesh.  But in many ways she could be writing about Victor, Perla, and Zumela.   She continues with a bit of advice for consumers:

As consumers, we may not be able to change our shopping habits overnight, but raising our level of awareness about what we are buying is a start. Looking for the cheap price does not support living wages and safe workplaces. Buying less, while buying responsibly, does. Not sure where to shop? Look for certified B corporations and certified Fair Trade products. Follow sites like GreenAmerica.org and GoodGuide.com for impartial guidance about which brands to support and which to avoid. Speak to store associates and read brand websites. Do they list their suppliers? Do they have a human-rights policy that includes training and capacity building? If all else fails, listen to your gut. It never lies.

So let’s engage in a bit of research based upon Hall’s pointers.  I challenge each of you to research 3 products for which you are a common consumer.  Try to spread these products out over several different types of industries.  I’ll be the first guinea pig by examining my biggest and most frequent expenditures.

I own a Honda Fit.  I have a MacBook Pro, an iPad, and I’m on my 2nd iPhone and iPod; I’m all-in on Apple. My dress shirts and slacks are often made by Stafford.  And lately I’ve been falling victim to Domino’s delivery (deep-dish is where it’s at) and Taco Cabana breakfast burritos (’cause they cheap).

Let’s start with Honda.  Using GoodGuide.com here’s what’s up with Honda:

GoodGuide actually allowed me to find a 2010 Fit.  I have a 2007, but we’ll go with the more detailed 2010 description of my vehicle, rather than just addressing Honda as a whole.  On “Environmental” measure of evaluation, the Fit does well, scoring 7.7 outta’ 10.  Apparently Honda does an impeccable job of efficiently using energy and materials in the production of the car, as they scored a perfect 10 out of 10 in “manufacturing.”  They also receive an 8/10 for fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions.  So yay for me on the purchase, right?! Not so fast.  The Honda Fit only gets a 5/10 on “Society.”  What’s that mean?  According to GoodGuide it means: “Summary evaluation of a company’s overall social performance, considering its management policies and practices; impacts on workers, consumers and communities; and degree of social transparency.”  On issues related to “Human Rights,”  policies, like having factories in countries with “oppressive regimes” and “fair trade practices” and “Workers Rights” policies like maternity leave and equitable pay, Honda only receives a 5/10.  Honda scored the worse on consumer safety; so if I die in a car crash within the next few weeks y’all know who to sue.  Maybe I should start paying attention to those factory recall notices I keep getting in the mail.  Nah.  Who’s got time for that?

On to Apple!  Steve Jobs R.I.P.!  Well… let’s see about that:

Apparently my MacBook Pro only boasts a score of 5.6.  Receiving a 6.3 in Environmental measurements, but only a 5.0 in Societal Measurements.  Instead of just taking GoodGuide’s ratings at their face value, I decided to dig deep, so I Googled “apple human rights violations” and found this article that shared this: “Two years ago, 137 workers at an Apple supplier in eastern China were injured after they were ordered to use a poisonous chemical to clean iPhone screens. Within seven months last year, two explosions at iPad factories, including in Chengdu, killed four people and injured 77. Before those blasts, Apple had been alerted to hazardous conditions inside the Chengdu plant, according to a Chinese group that published that warning.”  Hmmm… I’m not feeling so hot about that.

OK, Stafford dress shirts and slacks; please be a good company.

To start I had to use Hoovers.com, a website that helps one find the parent company of Stafford.  Stafford is owned by J.C. Penney Inc.  It boasts a 5.5/10 score.  Not so great.  When I Googled “jcpenney human rights violations” I encountered several articles about how my shirts and pants had been made in sweatshops.  But at least JCPenney’s had Ellen’s back when a bunch of haters wanted her clothing line pulled from stores around the country.  But I think I’m gonna’ have to come down on the side of the glass being half-empty on this one.

On to my favorite “foods”…Let’s do this deep-dish pizza!

Rut-ro, Shaggy.  3.7/10.  Yikes!  A 3.3 on Environmental Performance and a 4.0 on Society.  Domino’s Pizza Inc., we have a problem.  An then there’s this interesting slice about the the Department of Health and Human Services getting into a fight with Domino’s Founder Tom Monaghan: “The HHS Mandate requires employers to pay for health insurance that covers abortion-inducing drugs, contraception and sterilization under threat of draconian fines. It also requires employers to educate their employees about use of those drugs,” the group said. “Tom Monaghan is a staunch pro-life advocate and Catholic philanthropist. His religious beliefs prohibit him from paying for abortion-inducing drugs, contraception and sterilization.”

Taco Cabana is owned by Fiesta Restaurant Group.  The company isn’t small, generating $474 million in revenue each year, but Domino’s is 3 times that size with $1.6 billion.  In Googling a variety of combinations I found there were very few articles on Taco Cabana or Fiesta Restaurant Group in relation to worker or human rights violations.  They were not listed on GoodGuide.com.  But the lack of search engine results feels somewhat promising – as it seems that no news is good news on this issue.

Well… that was pretty frustrating.  I’m responsible for some not-so-good things.  I need to figure out a way to be more responsible as a consumer.  While it doesn’t feel like there are a ton of viable alternatives, I’m going to have to work toward making improved decisions related to purchasing.

But some of the solutions are simple; they just require a bit of sacrifice.  Buy less things.  Recycle them.  When forced to buy, do such from local businesses that engage in ethical business practices.

 

Posted in History, Society | Leave a Comment »

US History Calendar

Posted by Mr. Earhart on October 9, 2013

Posted in History | Leave a Comment »

Gilded Age Exam Resources

Posted by Mr. Earhart on September 24, 2013

Howdy Team! We’re edging closer to our 2nd Exam over The Gilded Age.  Below are some resources to help you study.

Industrialization Notes Found Here

A few Crash Course videos…

Industrialization:

The Gilded Age:

Westward Expansion:

The Dawes Act:

Review for The Gilded Age Exam

On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions and complete all identification terms.

Use the packet of images to help you to answer the questions below.  ***Hint: when appropriate, steal from other parts of this exam (matching and multiple choice questions) to help create your answers.***  Write, write, write!  The more you write the better! 

Define the Gilded Age and explain how these images and cartoons relate to this period in US History. 

The Gilded Age was a period in US History when everything looked great (golden) on the surface, but underneath there were a lot of issues, like poverty, corruption, and discrimination. 

            What was Golden?  There were many advancements in technology, such as the completion of the transcontinental railroad, transportation, electricity, new advancements in oil (rock oil), more efficient factories, and the telephone.  Jobs opened-up in cities, and many people moved to these cities, this was called Urbanization.  For many people there was a chance at land out west in Oklahoma.  Many people immigrating to the United States during this period of time, giving Mr. Earhart the ability to experience Chinese soup dumplings. 

              What was not so golden? But there was much poverty and corruption, such as the ward bosses in immigrant neighborhoods.  Ward bosses provided homes and jobs to immigrants, but they had the power to ban or limit you from those same things (homes and jobs).  There was discrimination against Chinese immigrants and Native Americans, and blacks in the South (and the North too).  Little children starved in the streets if they weren’t working 14 hours a day and taking jobs from adults.   

Explain the Chinese Exclusion Act and why many Americans supported it.

The Chinese Exclusion Act was a law that prevented Chinese immigrants from coming to the United States.  Many Americans supported this act because they felt that the Chinese were less civilized than “Americans.”  Basically, many Americans were racist, and when the Panic of 1873 sent the United States into an economic crisis, the Chinese became targets for the poor economy, as “Americans” accused the Chinese of taking jobs from away from white Americans.   

Explain the Dawes Act and the effects it had on Native Americans.  Why did many Americans support it as a solution to the “Indian Problem.”

  The Dawes Act was when the man (aka the government) divided-up Native American reservations.  The government gave individuals (Native Americans) plots of land in an attempt to civilize them.  Why?  Some Americans thought they were helping the Native Americans (like Alice Fletcher), because many were racist and thought the “White American” way of life was better, because many thought the right to own personal property was true freedom.  But most Americans just wanted land.  The rest of the land was given to white settlers (nearly 2/3rds of native American reservation land ended-up in the hands of whites).   The effect on Native Americans was the destruction of what was remaining of many Native American tribal lands, and, in large part, a disintegration of Native American culture.          

Bonus: Based on the your understanding of the Gilded Age, do you feel the current environment of the United States is similar or different to that of the Gilded Age?  Explain.

Identification terms for this exam.  Define AND explain the significance of each:

Political machine – a group dedicated to acquiring and maintaining power (both political and financial power).  These groups were often ethnic in structure, such as the Irish political machine, the Italian political machine, Chinese, etc.  These organizations were significant because they provided basic services, such as food and shelter, to immigrants, but they were often corrupt and manipulative of immigrants. 

Ward Boss (aka Party Boss)

Communism

Capitalism

Gospel of Wealth

Social Darwinism – a belief that wealthy Americans are wealthy because they are superior in abilities and skills, and that the poor are weaker members of society.  Significant in that followers of Social Darwinism used this philosophy to justify their own selfishness and poor treatment of immigrant communities and impoverished Americans.

Vertical Integration

Horizontal Integration

Union

Monopoly

Alice Fletcher

Jacob Riis

Posted in History | 6 Comments »

 
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