The PowerPoint for our unit on Imperialism and American Expansion can be found here: Imperialism Notes.
You can also watch this Crash Course video clip about the time period:
Notes over the First World War can be found here: WWI Notes.
And a Crash Course video may be found here:
American Expansion and World War I Exam
*Use a separate sheet of paper*
***Hint: when appropriate, steal from other parts of this exam (matching and multiple choice questions) to help create your answers.*** Write, write, write! The more you write the better!
Part One: Identification terms (3 points each, 15 points total)
Define AND explain the significance of FIVE terms:
Zimmermann Note – Germany wanted Mexico to attack the United States if the US entered the war. But the British intercepted (and decoded) this message and gave it to US. The US then decided to join the war.
Spanish-American War Self-Determination
The Philippines Alliance System
Alfred T. Mahan
Panama Canal Yellow Journalism Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Part Two: Essay (15 points total – 3 points will be awarded for each quality thought – including the opportunity for bonus points for each thought beyond 5)
Select one of the following prompts for your essay:
- What were the significant factors causing the outbreak of the First World War (we discussed 4) and why did the United States enter the conflict? Example essay from 1st Period:
Some significant factors causing the outbreak of the First World War are nationalism, imperialism, militarism (the arm’s race), and the Alliance System.
Imperialism, also known as empire building, created conflicts between European nations, as the powerful countries competed for economic markets around the world. This economic competition led to the desire for many countries to build up their militaries so they could control other parts of the world and make money from trading (and acquiring) resources from other countries.
There was an arm’s race between Great Britain and Germany, as Germany began to build submarines; the British felt threatened by this military build-up so GB began to expand it’s already strong Navy. The countries became suspicious and fearful of each other.
Many countries began to form alliances with other countries, pledging to come to the defense of a country if they were attacked. This led to WWI, as a conflict between two countries, such as Serbia and Austria-Hungary, became a problem for many countries that had pledged to defend them if they were attacked.
And that’s exactly what happened. A group of Serbians called The Black Hand, assassinated the prince of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand. These Serbians wanted to be controlled by Serbians and not the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Their pride in their cultural identity (Serbian), known as nationalism, led them to fight for their independence. Many European countries had also developed strong forms of nationalism within their countries (Germany, France, Great Britain, and even the United States) and that led to a feeling that they were superior to other countries and that they had a right to control other groups of people.
The United States became involved in the war in 1917 because of Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare in which they sank ships carrying US civilians, such as the Lusitania. When the Zimmermann Note, a proposed military alliance between Mexico and Germany, became public knowledge, the United States agreed to enter the war on the side of the Allied Powers. The Zimmermann Note was used to convince the American public to support the Allied Powers, as the United States had for years been making money by selling weapons and loaning money to the Allied Powers. It was probably only a matter of time before the US tried to make sure that the Allies won the war.
And 2nd Period:
The alliance system involved a lot of the countries into the First World War, because of the treaties between them and how if one of the countries was attacked another country would come to its defense. A fight set off a chain reaction in which nearly all countries joined the war.
Nationalism is pride in one’s nation, and a nation is a similar group of people. It led to the Serbian execution of Austrian prince Franz Ferdinand, because they wanted the Austrians out o’ their land – the Serbs wanted their own nation-state. Nationalism can be dangerous in excess, making some countries feel superior to others.
The arm’s race, by building up their armies, countries were not going to just let those armies sit there and be purty, they were going to use them.
Imperialism, when strong countries take control of weaker countries, led to conflict because European countries were in competition for land and resources.
The Germans really started using unrestricted submarine warfare which made it dangerous for civilians to be on the ocean, and when these civilians were killed the US got mad. When the Zimmerman Note revealed that Germany wanted Mexico to attack the US, folks got aaaaaalll wound up, and were ready to go to war with the Germans. But the real reason the US went to war was that they had been loaning tons of money and selling tons of weapons to the Allied Powers.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare takes down (causes the sinking of) the Lusitania, killing American citizens which caused tension between the US and Germany. The Lusitania didn’t just have citizens aboard, it also had several (5000) crates of weapons headed to Great Britain. The Zimmermann Note happened in which Germany wanted Mexico to attack the US. That made Uncle Sam angry.
Imperialism, when other countries take control of other countries, and want to be the most powerful country, it leads to conflict. It’s competition for overseas trade, resources, and markets. In order to do that, Europe began to militarize and engage in an arm’s race. Germany and Great Britain expanded their Navies, and they made each other nervous by doing that.
Nationalism, pride in one’s nation (which is common group of people), like the Serbs wanted to control their own land (self-determination), but Austria-Hungary controlled their (the Serbs’ land). So… one group of Serbs (The Black Hand) decided to kill the Austrian prince Franz Ferdinand.
But because European countries had alliances, nearly all of Europe ends up in the fight.
There were 4 significant factors causing the outbreak of the First World War. Franz Ferdinand, the Austrian Prince was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serbian rebel, because Serbia didn’t like being controlled by Austria, they wanted to have self-determination – they wanted to control their own nation.
It should have been a fight between Serbia and Austria, but there were many alliances between European countries, so everyone went to war.
European countries were engaged in imperialism, which is when a country takes over a weaker nation – because countries wanted resources and new markets for trade. In order to be economic powers, countries started to build-up their militaries.
We ran out of time so read the next classes’ answer J
- What were the arguments for and against American Expansion (Imperialism)? Explain how America became recognized as a world power during this time period? Example essay from 7th Period:
There are many reasons for and against American Expansion. Arguments for expansion include the gain of military and economic power. The United States wanted to be safe from harm, and building a strong Navy and military would help them do this. Alfred Mahan argued that a strong navy was important, and could be achieved by establishing military bases throughout the world. Mahan thought these bases could be used as fueling stations for our naval fleet throughout the world. Henry Cabot Lodge argued that the United States needed to evolve as a country. He believed in Social Darwinism, and that the US must become an economic power so that it could compete with and control other parts of the world.
And also there were some “American” idiots like Josiah Strong, who believed the US needed to Christianize and White-Up the rest o’ the world.
However there were some people who thought expansion was un-American and ran counter to the ideal of democracy – that it was wrong to tell other countries how to “behave”.
The Spanish American War made the US a world player, by defeating Spain the US gained the territories of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam – and Guantanamo Bay as a military base – which allowed the second Harold and Kumar film to be produced. The US overthrew the Queen (Liliuokalani) of Hawaii in order to remain in control of sugar plantations. The US also helped overthrow the Columbians and established Panama so they could build the Panama Canal. Teddy Roosevelt sent the Great White Fleet around the world, to say, “Hey e’erbody, don’t mess with us. We have guns.” This was Roosevelt’s idea of “Speaking softly, but carrying a big stick.”
Bonus: Explain the difference between a nation and a state. Using examples, describe how this difference has created conflict throughout history.
(2 bonus point awarded for each quality thought)